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Quoting, Summarizing, and Paraphrasing

Learn how to quote, summarize, and paraphrase other scholars' works and avoid plagiarism

Block quotations

Sometimes you may feel that it is important to include a rather lengthy section of the original text in your paper. If the section is 40+ words long, the quotation should be formatted as a block quotation; please see the APA style rules on formatting a block quotation for more information.

Sample block quotation

The researcher carefully considered how Lias and Bartmess (2003) explained this type of energy: 

The adiabatic ionization energy is the lowest energy required to effect the removal of an electron from a molecule or atom, and corresponds to the transition from the lowest electronic, vibrational, and rotational level of the isolated ion. (p. 22)

Tip: Writers usually use a clarifying sentence with a colon to introduce a block quotation.

To see more information on block quotations, including examples, please refer to "Block Quotation Examples".

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Author credit

Adapted from "Using someone else's words: Quote, summarize, and paraphrase your way to success" © Center for Teaching and Faculty Development at San Francisco State University. Adapted with permission.