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Developing Your Essay

Learn more about how to develop your essay: from brainstorming to organizing your writing

Creating strong titles

One of the first things a reader sees in a document is the title of the work, and as is so often the case, first impressions are important. If the title doesn’t grab readers' attention, it’s unlikely they'll continue reading. The best titles pique a reader’s interest in the subject matter and outline the focus of the document. If this sounds like a magical combination of substance and style, you’re right; it takes practice to write engaging and informative titles. The American Psychological Association (2020) provided guidance on the substance side of the equation:

  • The title should “be a concise statement of the main topic of the research and should identify the variables or theoretical issues under investigation and the relationship between them” (p. 31).
  • "Include essential terms in the title to enhance readers' ability to find your work during a search and to aid abstracting and indexing in databases" (p. 32).
  • Avoid unnecessary words and abbreviations (p. 32).

Be Stylish

Use your writing style to create an attention-grabbing title. Keeping in mind your audience and their expectations, as well as the tone of the document, would it be appropriate to use humour in the title? Could you use a clever play on words to grab your reader’s attention? Are there words that can be included to signal alignment with the instructions?

A One-Two Punch: Grab Their Attention and Then Tell Them More

Academics often use two-part titles that are separated with a colon. The first part of the title typically grabs the reader’s attention, and the second part usually presents the substantive details required to identify the focus of the work. For example, You Probably Think This Paper's About You: Narcissists' Perceptions of Their Personality and Reputation (Carlson, Vazire, & Oltmanns, 2011). 

Not All Titles are Considered Equal

If you’re looking for examples of good titles, please ask your instructor if she or he would identify some past works with strong titles and why the instructor liked the titles. If you’re writing an article for publication in a journal, review some recent editions to see if there are patterns in the titles. Finally, try to give your imagination some time to work on the title, and make sure that you’re prepared to note any ideas when inspiration strikes. 

If the title will appear on a title page, see What Information Should Appear on My Title Page? for more information.


American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). 

Carlson, E. N., Vazire, S., & Oltmanns, T. F. (2011). You probably think this paper's about you: Narcissists' perceptions of their personality and reputation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101(1), 185-201.